See the world through the ‘eyes of others’. See the world for ourselves.
‘plenty to see, little to understand’
Reinforced cultural stereotypes – Little cultural integration
Internationalisation – of the individual developing respect and understanding for others students interacting and engaging with ‘Cultural Others’ prepares students (home and international) for global work and leadership developing inter-cultural competencies
‘A curriculum which gives international and intercultural knowledge and abilities, aimed at preparing students for performing (professionally, socially, emotionally) in an international and multicultural context.’ (Nilsson 2002)
‘Change to make the curriculum more engaging and relevant for students from cultures different from that of the university itself, and . . . change to prepare students from the home and other cultures to live and work in settings and organizations quite different from those of the university’s home culture.’ (McTaggart 2003)
Bank’s Curriculum Evaluation, 1993
- CONTRIBUTIONS APPROACH: Celebrating individuals, foods, holidays, cultural occasions.
- ADDITIVE APPROACH: Content & lessons added without changing basic curriculum structure.
- TRANSFORMATIVE APPROACH: Curriculum structure changed. Students view issues from diverse perspectives, ethnicities and cultures.
- ACTION APPROACH: Students make decisions on civic, social and personal problems and take action to help solve them.
Brookes Format (2008)
- GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES: Knowledge of how your discipline is represented and understood within other cultures, widening your frame of reference beyond purely Western.
- CROSS CULTURAL COMPETENCE: Awareness of own culture and perspectives and the development of confidence to question one’s own values and others responsibly and ethically.
- RESPONSIBLE CITIZENSHIP: Developing one’s understanding of being a Global Citizen. Necessity to engage with issues of equity and social justice, sustainability and reduction of prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination.
- EXCLUSIVE: Fee paying Enterprise universities.
- INCLUSIVE: Culturally inclusive, cross cultural communication, international perspectives, cultural exchange. Academic as tourist.
- TRANSFORMED: Paradigm shift. Work viewed from perspectives of ‘others’. Students are considered to be capable, ethical and sensitive. Academic as explorer.